Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. With the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, the lifetime risk of a diagnosis is approximately 16%, making prostate cancer the most common malignancy among men. Apart from age (prostate cancer is found mainly in men over the age of 55), the primary risk factor is hereditary, and some studies have shown an association between prostate cancer and high dietary intake of fat, meat, and dairy products. The risk of prostate cancer is also associated with race, ethnicity, geographic region. The most commonly used tests are a serum PSA level, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasonography and biopsy, that remains the most used analysis for diagnostic confirmation of PCa. Slowing of the urinary stream, arising at night to void, and increased urinary frequency are common symptoms associated with aging but often are unrelated to the presence of prostate cancer. It is for this reason that early detection test have been developed in order to identify prostate cancer while it remains confined to the prostate.

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